John Hutchinson

Professor of Evolutionary Biomechanics (Evolutionary biology not elsewhere classified)

Royal Veterinary College, UK

http://www.rvc.ac.uk/about/our-people/john-hutchinson I'm a biologist originally from the USA who now resides in the UK as a dual citizen. I received my BS degree in Zoology at the University of Wisconsin in 1993, then obtained my PhD in Integrative Biology at the University of California with Kevin Padian in 2001, and rounded out my training with a two-year National Science Foundation bioinformatics Post Doc at the Biomechanical Engineering Division of Stanford University with Scott Delp. I started at the RVC as a Lecturer in Evolutionary Biomechanics in 2003 in the Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences and was promoted to Reader in 2008, then Professor in 2011. My interests are in the evolutionary biomechanics of locomotion, especially in large terrestrial vertebrates. I've studied birds, extinct dinosaurs and their relatives, elephants, and crocodiles. See the sidebar for more about my research, team, publications and external collaborations/memberships. I am an Associate Editor for Proceedings of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) and the new open access journal PeerJ. From 2012-2013 I was a Senior Research Fellow funded by the Royal Society Leverhulme Trust. I have won the Society for Vertebrate Paleontology's Romer Prize (2000), am an elected Fellow of the Linnean Society and Society of Biology, and was awarded the Charles Darwin lecture at the British Science Festival in 2012 as well as the RCVS Share Jones Lecture in Veterinary Anatomy in 2011.

Publications

  • Predictive Simulations of Musculoskeletal Function and Jumping Performance in a Generalized Bird
  • Giant extinct caiman breaks constraint on the axial skeleton of extant crocodylians
  • The evolution of pelvic limb muscle moment arms in bird-line archosaurs
  • Three-dimensional polygonal muscle modelling and line of action estimation in living and extinct taxa
  • Arm waving in stylophoran echinoderms: three-dimensional mobility analysis illuminates cornute locomotion
  • Cancellous bone and theropod dinosaur locomotion. Part III—Inferring posture and locomotor biomechanics in extinct theropods, and its evolution on the line to birds
  • Cancellous bone and theropod dinosaur locomotion. Part II—a new approach to inferring posture and locomotor biomechanics in extinct tetrapod vertebrates
  • Cancellous bone and theropod dinosaur locomotion. Part I—an examination of cancellous bone architecture in the hindlimb bones of theropods
  • Building a Bird: Musculoskeletal Modeling and Simulation of Wing-Assisted Incline Running During Avian Ontogeny.
  • Relationships of mass properties and body proportions to locomotor habit in terrestrial Archosauria
  • How to build a dinosaur: Musculoskeletal modeling and simulation of locomotor biomechanics in extinct animals
  • Three-dimensional visualization as a tool for interpreting locomotion strategies in ophiuroids from the Devonian Hunsrück Slate
  • Reverse-engineering the locomotion of a stem amniote
  • Medetomidine–ketamine–sevoflurane anaesthesia in juvenile Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) undergoing experimental surgery
  • Morphological diversification of biomechanical traits: Mustelid locomotor specializations and the macroevolution of long bone cross-sectional morphology
  • Foot pressure distribution in white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) during walking
  • Evolution of forelimb musculoskeletal function across the fish-to-tetrapod transition
  • Relating neuromuscular control to functional anatomy of limb muscles in extant archosaurs
  • Musculoskeletal modelling of the Nile crocodile ( Crocodylus niloticus ) hindlimb: Effects of limb posture on leverage during terrestrial locomotion
  • The running kinematics of free-roaming giraffes, measured using a low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).
  • Evolutionary parallelisms of pectoral and pelvic network-anatomy from fins to limbs
  • Foot pressure distribution in White Rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) during walking
  • Ontogenetic changes in the body plan of the sauropodomorph dinosaur Mussaurus patagonicus reveal shifts of locomotor stance during growth
  • Anatomy, ontogeny, and evolution of the archosaurian respiratory system: A case study on Alligator mississippiensis and Struthio camelus
  • Femoral specializations to locomotor habits in early archosauriforms
  • Anatomically grounded estimation of hindlimb muscle sizes in Archosauria
  • Exploring the functional morphology of the Gorilla shoulder through musculoskeletal modelling
  • Evolution of the patella and patelloid in marsupial mammals
  • 3D hindlimb joint mobility of the stem-archosaur Euparkeria capensis with implications for postural evolution within Archosauria
  • More than one way to be a giant: Convergence and disparity in the hip joints of saurischian dinosaurs
  • Patterns of Limb and Epaxial Muscle Activity During Walking in the Fire Salamander, Salamandra salamandra
  • Low effective mechanical advantage of giraffes’ limbs during walking reveals trade-off between limb length and locomotor performance
  • Divergent evolution of terrestrial locomotor abilities in extant Crocodylia
  • A proposed standard for quantifying 3‐D hindlimb joint poses in living and extinct archosaurs
  • Appendicular Muscle Physiology and Biomechanics in Crocodylus niloticus
  • The evolutionary biomechanics of locomotor function in giant land animals
  • The extinct shark Otodus megalodon was a transoceanic superpredator: Inferences from 3D modeling
  • In vivo and ex vivo range of motion in the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra
  • Spherical frame projections for visualising joint range of motion, and a complementary method to capture mobility data
  • Multi-Joint Analysis of Pose Viability Supports the Possibility of Salamander-Like Hindlimb Configurations in the Permian Tetrapod Eryops megacephalus
  • A Guide to Inverse Kinematic Marker-Guided Rotoscoping Using IK Solvers
  • Predictive simulations of running gait reveal a critical dynamic role for the tail in bipedal dinosaur locomotion
  • Comparison of the arm‐lowering performance between Gorilla and Homo through musculoskeletal modeling
  • Walking—and Running and Jumping—with Dinosaurs and their Cousins, Viewed Through the Lens of Evolutionary Biomechanics
  • Can skeletal surface area predict in vivo foot surface area?
  • Bony lesions in early tetrapods and the evolution of mineralized tissue repair
  • The running kinematics of free-roaming giraffes, measured using a low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)
  • Computational modelling of muscle fibre operating ranges in the hindlimb of a small ground bird (Eudromia elegans), with implications for modelling locomotion in extinct species
  • Low effective mechanical advantage of giraffes’ limbs during walking reveals trade-off between limb length and locomotor performance
  • Limb myology and muscle architecture of the Indian rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis and the white rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum (Mammalia: Rhinocerotidae)
  • Forelimb muscle and joint actions in Archosauria: insights from Crocodylus johnstoni (Pseudosuchia) and Mussaurus patagonicus (Sauropodomorpha)
  • Hip joint articular soft tissues of non-dinosaurian Dinosauromorpha and early Dinosauria: evolutionary and biomechanical implications for Saurischia
  • Limb bone scaling in hopping macropods and quadrupedal artiodactyls
  • A Dynamic Simulation of Musculoskeletal Function in the Mouse Hindlimb During Trotting Locomotion.
  • Anatomical network analysis of the musculoskeletal system reveals integration loss and parcellation boost during the fins-to-limbs transition.
  • Evolution of hindlimb muscle anatomy across the tetrapod water-to-land transition, including comparisons with forelimb anatomy.
  • Integrating morphology and in vivo skeletal mobility with digital models to infer function in brittle star arms.
  • Evolutionary parallelisms of pectoral and pelvic network-anatomy from fins to limbs
  • The influence of speed and size on avian terrestrial locomotor biomechanics: Predicting locomotion in extinct theropod dinosaurs.
  • Are mice good models for human neuromuscular disease? Comparing muscle excursions in walking between mice and humans.
  • Reconstructing pectoral appendicular muscle anatomy in fossil fish and tetrapods over the fins-to-limbs transition.
  • Secondary osteons scale allometrically in mammalian humerus and femur.
  • A quantitative evaluation of physical and digital approaches to centre of mass estimation.
  • Gearing effects of the patella (knee extensor muscle sesamoid) of the helmeted guineafowl during terrestrial locomotion.
  • Using step width to compare locomotor biomechanics between extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs and modern obligate bipeds.
  • Open data and digital morphology.
  • Analysis of the moment arms and kinematics of ostrich (Struthio camelus) double patellar sesamoids.
  • Cellular preservation of musculoskeletal specializations in the Cretaceous bird Confuciusornis
  • The locomotor kinematics and ground reaction forces of walking giraffes
  • Reconstruction of the musculoskeletal system in an extinct lion
  • Cryptic complexity in felid vertebral evolution: shape differentiation and allometry of the axial skeleton
  • Regional differentiation of felid vertebral column evolution: a study of 3D shape trajectories
  • Geometric mechanics applied to tetrapod locomotion on granular media
  • Foot pressure distributions during walking in African elephants (Loxodonta africana)
  • New insights into the morphology of the Carboniferous tetrapod Crassigyrinus scoticus from computed tomography
  • Limb Kinematics, Kinetics and Muscle Dynamics During the Sit-to-Stand Transition in Greyhounds
  • Evolution of the patellar sesamoid bone in mammals
  • Limb proportions show developmental plasticity in response to embryo movement.
  • Sesamoid bones in tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) investigated with X-ray microtomography, and implications for sesamoid evolution in Lepidosauria.
  • Muscle moment arms and sensitivity analysis of a mouse hindlimb musculoskeletal model.
  • Musculoskeletal Geometry, Muscle Architecture and Functional Specialisations of the Mouse Hindlimb.
  • The scaling of postcranial muscles in cats (Felidae) II: hindlimb and lumbosacral muscles.
  • The scaling of postcranial muscles in cats (Felidae) I: forelimb, cervical, and thoracic muscles.
  • Big cat, small cat: reconstructing body size evolution in living and extinct Felidae.
  • Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion.
  • Energy allocation and behaviour in the growing broiler chicken
  • Limb bone scaling in hopping macropods and quadrupedal artiodactyls
  • The extinct, giant giraffid Sivatherium giganteum : skeletal reconstruction and body mass estimation
  • Inferring muscle functional roles of the ostrich pelvic limb during walking and running using computer optimization
  • Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan.
  • Foot pressure distributions during walking in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).
  • Skeletal pathology and variable anatomy in elephant feet assessed using computed tomography.
  • Biomechanical evolution of solid bones in large animals: a microanatomical investigation
  • A preliminary case study of the effect of shoe-wearing on the biomechanics of a horse's foot.
  • Anatomy, morphology and evolution of the patella in squamate lizards and tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus).
  • Morphological and functional changes in the vertebral column with increasing aquatic adaptation in crocodylomorphs.
  • Radiographic protocol and normal anatomy of the hind feet in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).
  • Evolution of the patellar sesamoid bone in mammals
  • Finite-element modelling of mechanobiological factors influencing sesamoid tissue morphology in the patellar tendon of an ostrich
  • Evolution of the patellar sesamoid bone in mammals
  • Idealized landmark-based geometric reconstructions of poorly preserved fossil material: A case study of an early tetrapod vertebra
  • The effects of feed particle size on feeding kinematics in young broiler chickens
  • What makes an accurate and reliable subject-specific finite element model? A case study of an elephant femur
  • Two applications of 3D semi-landmark morphometrics implying different template designs: The theropod pelvis and the shrew skull,Deux applications de morphométrie par semi-landmarks 3D impliquant une conception différente du template: le pelvis des théropodes et le crâne des musaraignes
  • Correction: A dynamic finite element analysis of human foot complex in the sagittal plane during level walking (PLoS ONE)
  • Correction: A computational analysis of limb and body dimensions in Tyrannosaurus rex with implications for locomotion, ontogeny, and growth (PLoS ONE)
  • Temporal gait parameters in the alpaca and the evolution of pacing and trotting locomotion in the Camelidae
  • Evolutionary developmental biology: Dynasty of the plastic fish.
  • Corrigendum: Functional specialization and ontogenetic scaling of limb anatomy in Alligator mississippiensis
  • Osteopathology in the feet of rhinoceroses: Lesion type and distribution
  • What makes an accurate and reliable subject-specific finite element model? A case study of an elephant femur
  • Shake a tail feather: the evolution of the theropod tail into a stiff aerodynamic surface.
  • Anatomical and biomechanical traits of broiler chickens across ontogeny. Part II. Body segment inertial properties and muscle architecture of the pelvic limb.
  • Anatomical and biomechanical traits of broiler chickens across ontogeny. Part I. Anatomy of the musculoskeletal respiratory apparatus and changes in organ size.
  • Correction: A Computational Analysis of Limb and Body Dimensions in Tyrannosaurus rex with Implications for Locomotion, Ontogeny, and Growth.
  • Correction: A Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Human Foot Complex in the Sagittal Plane during Level Walking.
  • The gait dynamics of the modern broiler chicken: a cautionary tale of selective breeding.
  • Trabecular bone scales allometrically in mammals and birds.
  • On the inference of function from structure using biomechanical modelling and simulation of extinct organisms.
  • Ontogenetic scaling patterns and functional anatomy of the pelvic limb musculature in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).
  • Structure, ontogeny and evolution of the patellar tendon in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and other palaeognath birds.
  • Three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) knee joint.
  • Three-dimensional limb joint mobility in the early tetrapod Ichthyostega.
  • A growing size synthesis.
  • What makes an accurate and reliable subject-specific finite element model? A case study of an elephant femur.
  • Comparative architectural properties of limb muscles in Crocodylidae and Alligatoridae and their relevance to divergent use of asymmetrical gaits in extant Crocodylia.
  • Scaling of sensorimotor control in terrestrial mammals.
  • An experimental and morphometric test of the relationship between vertebral morphology and joint stiffness in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).
  • A dynamic finite element analysis of human foot complex in the sagittal plane during level walking.
  • Historical perspectives on the evolution of tetrapodomorph movement.
  • Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor biomechanics in bird-line archosaurs.
  • Pulmonary anatomy in the Nile crocodile and the evolution of unidirectional airflow in Archosauria.
  • Size-related changes in foot impact mechanics in hoofed mammals.
  • Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods.
  • Whole-bone scaling of the avian pelvic limb.
  • Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).
  • 3D Morphometric and posture study of felid scapulae using statistical shape modelling.
  • Elbow joint adductor moment arm as an indicator of forelimb posture in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods.
  • From flat foot to fat foot: structure, ontogeny, function, and evolution of elephant "sixth toes".
  • A computational analysis of limb and body dimensions in Tyrannosaurus rex with implications for locomotion, ontogeny, and growth.
  • Comparative axial morphology in pinnipeds and its correlation with aquatic locomotory behaviour.
  • The effects of selective breeding on the architectural properties of the pelvic limb in broiler chickens: a comparative study across modern and ancestral populations.
  • Integration of biomechanical compliance, leverage, and power in elephant limbs.
  • Functional specialization and ontogenetic scaling of limb anatomy in Alligator mississippiensis.
  • Topsy-turvy locomotion: biomechanical specializations of the elbow in suspended quadrupeds reflect inverted gravitational constraints.
  • Tyrannosaurus rex redux: Tyrannosaurus tail portrayals.
  • BoneJ: Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ.
  • Tyrannosaur paleobiology: new research on ancient exemplar organisms.
  • Scaling of sensorimotor control in terrestrial mammals.
  • Variation in center of mass estimates for extant sauropsids and its importance for reconstructing inertial properties of extinct archosaurs.
  • The first known alvarezsaurid (theropoda: Aves) from North America
  • Analysis of hindlimb muscle moment arms in Tyrannosaurus rex using a three-dimensional musculoskeletal computer model: Implications for stance, gait, and speed
  • The anatomical foundation for multidisciplinary studies of animal limb function: Examples from dinosaur and elephant limb imaging studies
  • Erratum: Tyrannosaurus was not a fast runner (Nature (2002) 415 (1018-1021))
  • Phylogenetic definitions and nomenclature of the major taxonomic categories of the carnivorous Dinosauria (Theropoda)
  • New information on Segisaurus halli, a small theropod dinosaur from the Early Jurassic of Arizona
  • The evolution of pelvic osteology and soft tissues on the line to extant birds (Neornithes)
  • Response: Of ideas, dichotomies, methods, and data - How much do elephant kinematics differ from those of other large animals?
  • Adductors, abductors, and the evolution of archosaur locomotion
  • Theropod locomotion
  • Segmental Kinematic Coupling of the Human Spinal Column during Locomotion
  • The evolution of femoral osteology and soft tissues on the line to extant birds (Neornithes)
  • The evolution of locomotion in archosaurs
  • The movements of limb segments and joints during locomotion in African and Asian elephants (Journal of Experimental Biology 211, (2735-2751))
  • Constraint-based exclusion of limb poses for reconstructing theropod dinosaur locomotion
  • Three-dimensional geometric analysis of felid limb bone allometry.
  • More thoughts on the relationship between apparent and material densities in bone.
  • The evolutionary continuum of limb function from early theropods to birds.
  • The movements of limb segments and joints during locomotion in African and Asian elephants.
  • Some basic relationships between density values in cancellous and cortical bone.
  • Ontogenetic scaling of foot musculoskeletal anatomy in elephants.
  • The three-dimensional locomotor dynamics of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants reveal a smooth gait transition at moderate speed.
  • A 3D interactive method for estimating body segmental parameters in animals: application to the turning and running performance of Tyrannosaurus rex.
  • Biomechanics: Are fast-moving elephants really running?
  • The evolution of hindlimb tendons and muscles on the line to crown-group birds.
  • Pelvic and hindlimb musculature of Tyrannosaurus rex (Dinosauria: Theropoda).
  • Tyrannosaurus was not a fast runner.
  • Biomechanical modeling and sensitivity analysis of bipedal running ability. I. Extant taxa.
  • Biomechanics: early birds surmount steep slopes.
  • The locomotor kinematics of Asian and African elephants: changes with speed and size.
  • The structure of the cushions in the feet of African elephants (Loxodonta africana).
  • Biomechanical modeling and sensitivity analysis of bipedal running ability. II. Extinct taxa.
  • Correction: Biomechanics of Running Indicates Endothermy in Bipedal Dinosaurs.
  • Biomechanics of running indicates endothermy in bipedal dinosaurs.
  • Correction: Three-Dimensional Geometric Analysis of Felid Limb Bone Allometry.
  • Dinosaur locomotion: beyond the bones.
  • Functional specialisation of pelvic limb anatomy in horses (Equus caballus).
  • Deciphering locomotion in reptiles: application of elliptic Fourier transforms to femoral microanatomy
  • Quantitative biomechanical assessment of locomotor capabilities of the stem archosaur Euparkeria capensis

John Hutchinson's public data