Supplementary Material for: TIR-Domain-Containing Adaptor-Inducing Interferon-β (TRIF) Mediates Antibacterial Defense during Gram-Negative Pneumonia by Inducing Interferon-γ

<i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> is an important cause of Gram-negative pneumonia and sepsis. Mice deficient for TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) demonstrate enhanced bacterial growth and dissemination during <i>Klebsiella </i>pneumonia. We show here that the impaired antibacterial defense of TRIF mutant mice is associated with absent interferon (IFN)-γ production in the lungs. IFN-γ production by splenocytes in response to <i>K. pneumoniae </i>in vitro was critically dependent on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), the common TLR adaptor myeloid differentiation primary response gene (MyD88) and TRIF. Reconstitution of TRIF mutant mice with recombinant IFN-γ via the airways reduced bacterial loads in lungs and distant body sites to levels measured in wild-type mice, and partially restored pulmonary cytokine levels. The IFN-γ-induced, improved, enhanced antibacterial response in TRIF mutant mice occurred at the expense of increased hepatocellular injury. These data indicate that TRIF mediates antibacterial defense during Gram-negative pneumonia, at least in part, by inducing IFN-γ at the primary site of infection.