Supplementary Material for: Plasma Proendothelin-1 as an Early Marker of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication in preterm infants. Clinical prediction of BPD at an early stage in life is difficult. Plasma proendothelin-1 (CT-proET-1) is a lung injury biomarker in pulmonary hypertension and respiratory distress. <b><i>Objective:</i></b> To assess the prognostic ability of CT-proET-1 in BPD. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> In 227 prospectively enrolled preterm infants born at <32 weeks gestational age (GA), plasma CT-proET-1 was measured at birth, day of life (DOL) 2, 3, 6 and 28, and at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). BPD was defined as mild in infants requiring supplemental oxygen at DOL 28 and moderate/severe in those requiring it at 36 weeks PMA. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The predictive ability of CT-proET-1 for any BPD was poor at birth [area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.654, 95% CI 0.494-0.814], moderate at DOL 2 and 3 (AUC 0.769, 95% CI 0.666-0.872) and excellent at DOL 6 (AUC 0.918, 95% CI 0.840-0.995). Multivariable regression analysis revealed that CT-proET-1 levels at DOL 2, 3, 6 and 28 were strongly related to the duration of oxygen supplementation, independently of GA and the duration of respiratory support. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> CT-proET-1 is a novel promising biomarker for predicting the development of BPD in preterm infants when measured at the end of the first week of life.