Supplementary Material for: Expanding Genetic and Functional Diagnoses of IGF1R Haploinsufficiencies

<i>Background:</i> The growth-promoting effects of IGF-I is mediated through the IGF-I receptor (IGF1R), a widely expressed cell-surface tyrosine kinase receptor. <i>IGF1R</i> copy number variants (CNV) can cause pre- and postnatal growth restriction or overgrowth. <i>Methods:</i> Whole exome sequence (WES), chromosomal microarray, and targeted <i>IGF1R</i> gene analyses were performed on 3 unrelated children who share features of small for gestational age, short stature, and elevated serum IGF-I, but otherwise had clinical heterogeneity. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of cell-surface IGF1R was performed on live primary cells derived from the patients. <i>Results:</i> Two novel <i>IGF1R</i> CNV and a heterozygous <i>IGF1R</i> nonsense variant were identified in the 3 patients. One CNV (4.492 Mb) was successfully called from WES, utilizing eXome-Hidden Markov Model (XHMM) analysis. FACS analysis of cell-surface IGF1R on live primary cells derived from the patients demonstrated a ∼50% reduction in IGF1R availability associated with the haploinsufficiency state. <i>Conclusion:</i> In addition to conventional methods, <i>IGF1R</i> CNV can be identified from WES data. FACS analysis of live primary cells is a promising method for efficiently evaluating and screening for IGF1R haploinsufficiency. Further investigations are necessary to delineate how comparable IGF1R availability leads to the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes and variable responsiveness to rhGH therapy.