Connectivity of Natura 2000 forest sites in Europe

<p>Estreguil, C., Caudullo, G., de Rigo,D., 2014. <strong>Connectivity of Natura 2000 forest sites in Europe</strong>. <em>F1000Posters 2014, 5</em>: 485. doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.1063300. ArXiv: 1406.1501</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>CONNECTIVITY OF NATURA 2000 FOREST SITES</strong> <strong>IN EUROPE</strong></p> <p><strong><br></strong></p> <p>Christine Estreguil ¹, Giovanni Caudullo ¹, Daniele de Rigo ¹ ²</p> <p>¹ European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability,<br>Via E. Fermi 2749, I-21027 Ispra (VA), Italy</p> <p>² Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria,<br>Via Ponzio 34/5, I-20133 Milano, Italy</p> <p> </p> <p><strong><br></strong></p> <p><strong>Background/Purpose</strong>: In the context of the European Biodiversity policy, the Green Infrastructure Strategy is one supporting tool to mitigate fragmentation, inter-alia to increase the spatial and functional connectivity between protected and unprotected areas. The Joint Research Centre has developed an integrated model to provide a macro-scale set of indices to evaluate the connectivity of the Natura 2000 network, which forms the backbone of a Green Infrastructure for Europe. Themodel allows a wide assessment and comparison to be performed across countries in terms of structural (spatially connected or isolated sites) and functional connectivity (least-cost distances between sites influenced by distribution, distance and land cover).<br><strong>Main conclusion</strong>: The Natura 2000 network in Europe shows differences among countries in terms of the sizes and numbers of sites, their distribution as well as distances between sites. Connectivity has been assessed on the basis of a 500 m average inter-site distance, roads and intensive land use as barrier effects as well as the presence of "green" corridors. In all countries the Natura 2000 network is mostly made of sites which are not physically connected. Highest functional connectivity values are found for Spain, Slovakia, Romania and Bulgaria. The more natural landscape in Sweden and Finland does not result in high inter-site network connectivity due to large inter-site distances. The distribution of subnets with respect to roads explains the higher share of isolated subnets in Portugal than in Belgium.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>References</strong></p> <p>[1] Bennett, J., 2010. OpenStreetMap. Packt Publishing. ISBN: 978-1-84719-750-4.<br>[2] Bennett, G., Bento Pais, R., Berry, P., Didicescu, P. S., Fichter, M., Hlavác, V., Hoellen, K., Jones-Walters, L., Miko, L., Onida, M., Plesník, J., Smith, D.,Wakenhut, F., 2010. Green Infrastructure Implementation: Proceedings of the European Commission Conference 19 November 2010. (Ed: Karhu, J.). European Commission, 28 pp. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/ecosystems/green_infrastructure.htm<br>[3] de Rigo, D., 2012. Applying semantic constraints to array programming: the module ”check_is” of the Mastrave modelling library. In: Semantic Array Programming with Mastrave - Introduction to Semantic ComputationalModelling. http://mastrave.org/doc/mtv_m/check_is<br>[4] Directorate-General for Environment (DG ENV), 2012. The Multifunctionality of Green Infrastructure. Science for Environment Policy. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/ecosystems/docs/Green_Infrastructure.pdf<br>[5] Directorate-General for Environment (DG ENV), 2012. Natura 2000 data - the European network of protected sites. Temporal coverage: 2011. European Environment Agency web portal. http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/ds_resolveuid/60860bd4-28d6-44aa-93c7-d9354a8205e3.<br>[6] European Commission, 1992. Council directive 92/43/EEC of 21 may 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora. Official Journal of the European Union 35 (L 206), 7-50.<br>[7] European Commission, 2010. Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds. Official Journal of the European Union 53 (L 20), 7-25.<br>[8] European Commission, 2011. Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020. Brussel, COM (2011) 244 final. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/comm2006/pdf/2020/1_EN_ACT_part1_v7%5B1%5D.pdf<br>[9] European Commission, 2013. Green Infrastructure (GI) - Enhancing Europe’s Natural Capital. Brussel, COM (2013) 249 final. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2013:0249:FIN:EN:PDF<br>[10] European Environment Agency, 2012a. Corine Land Cover 2006 raster data - version 16. European Environment Agency web portal. http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-andmaps/data/ds_resolveuid/ef13cef8-2ef5-49ae-9545-9042457ce4c6<br>[11] Estreguil, C., Caudullo, G., de Rigo, D., Whitmore, C., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., 2012. Reporting on European forest fragmentation: standardized indices and web map services. IEEE Earthzine 5 (2), 384031+. http://www.earthzine.org/?p=384031 (2nd quarter theme: Forest Resource Information)<br>[12] Estreguil, C., Caudullo, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., 2013. Connectivity of Natura 2000 Forest Sites. EUR26087EN. Luxemburg: Publications Office of the European Union. JRC 83104. DOI:10.2788/95065<br>[13] Estreguil, C., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., 2014. A proposal for an integrated modelling framework to characterise habitat pattern. Environmental Modelling & Software 52, 176-191. DOI:10.1016/j.envsoft.2013.10.011<br>[14] Estreguil, C., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., 2014. Supplementary materials for: A proposal for an integrated modelling framework to characterise habitat pattern. http://mastrave.org/bib/Estreguil_etal_EMSsuppl_2014.pdf (Extended version of the supplementary materials as published in Environmental Modelling & Software 52, 176-191, DOI:10.1016/j.envsoft.2013.10.011).<br>[15] Haklay,M.,Weber, P., 2008. OpenStreetMap: User-Generated Street Maps. Pervasive Computing 7(4). doi: 10.1109/MPRV.2008.80<br>[16] McHugh, N., Thompson, S., 2011. A rapid ecological network assessment tool and its use in locating habitat extension areas in a changing landscape. Journal for Nature Conservation 19 (2011) 236-244. DOI:10.1016/j.jnc.2011.02.002<br>[17] Saura, S., Torné, J., 2009. Conefor Sensinode 2.2: a software package for quantifying the importance of habitat patches for landscape connectivity. Environmental Modelling & Software 24 (1), 135-139. DOI:10.1016/j.envsoft.2008.05.005<br>[18] Soille, P., Vogt, P., 2009.Morphological segmentation of binary patterns. Pattern Recogn. Lett. 30 (4), 456-459. DOI:10.1016/j.patrec.2008.10.015<br>[19] Van Rossum, G., Drake Jr., F., 2011. The Python Language Reference Manual (version 3.2). Network Theory Limited, ISBN 978-1-906966-14-0.</p>