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Spike protein multiorgan tropism suppressed by antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2

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modified on 22.11.2021, 14:51
While there is clinical evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 multiorgan tropism in severely infected coronavirus 19 patients, it’s unclear if there is differential multiorgan biodistribution and organ uptake in healthy young individuals, a group that usually has asymptomatic to moderate coronavirus 19 symptoms. In addition, for antibody therapies and vaccines that target the spike protein, it’s unclear if these reduce severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or spike protein multiorgan tropism equally. We used fluorescently labeled spike protein near infrared fluorescence to study viral behavior, using an in vivo dynamic imaging system, in young mice. We found a spike protein body-wide biodistribution followed by a slow regional elimination, except for the liver, which showed an accumulation. Spike protein uptake was highest for the lungs, and this was followed by kidney, heart and liver, but, unlike the choroid plexus, it was not detected in the brain parenchyma or cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, the brain vascular barriers were effective in restricting the entry of spike protein into brain parenchyma in young healthy mice. While both anti-angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and anti-spike protein antibodies suppressed spike protein biodistribution and organ uptake, anti-spike protein antibody was more effective. By extension, our data support the efficacy of these antibodies on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 biodistribution kinetics and multiorgan tropism that could determine coronavirus 19 organ-specific outcomes.