Cultural Adaptations to the Measurement of Attitudes to Ageing: Psychometric Assessment of the Malay Reactions to Ageing Questionnaire
The aims of this study were to culturally adapt the Reactions to Ageing Questionnaire (RAQ) for a non-Western (Malay) population, and explore attitudes to ageing in relation to age, gender, and education. Eight new culturally relevant items were generated by asking Malay-speaking participants about their reactions to ageing. A Malay version of the extended 35-item RAQ was then administered to 911 Malaysian participants aged 18 to 60 years. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors. Three of the factors were similar to those identified in the original RAQ, while “Family and Religion” emerged as a new factor. More negative attitudes to ageing were observed in younger and female respondents. There were no effects of education. This culturally adapted RAQ exhibits robust psychometric properties, and could be used to assess attitudes to ageing in Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. Moreover, we have identified a “core set” of RAQ items that could be applicable worldwide.