Body condition score prior to parturition is associated with plasma and adipose tissue biomarkers of lipid metabolism and inflammation in Holstein cows

Posted on 2018-01-15 - 05:00
Abstract Background Previous research has revealed a strong inflammatory response within adipose (AT) tissue during the transition into lactation. Whether this effect is a result of oxidative stress induced by lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation associated with differences in prepartum body condition score remains to be determined. The objectives of this study were to investigate systemic biomarkers of energy balance and inflammation and the expression of lipid metabolism- and inflammation-related genes in AT during the transition period in dairy cows. Results Twenty multiparous Holstein cows were retrospectively divided by body condition score (BCS) prior to parturition into two groups (10 cows/group): BCS ≤ 3.25 (LoBCS) and BCS ≥ 3.75 (HiBCS). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was biopsied from the tail-head region at d − 10, 7 and 20 relative to parturition. Plasma was used to evaluate biomarkers of energy balance (EBAL) [free fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, insulin] and inflammation [IL-1β, haptoglobin, myeloperoxidase, and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM)]. Although insulin concentration was not affected by BCS, NEFA was overall greater and glycerol lower in HiBCS cows. Greater activity of myeloperoxidase in plasma coincided with increased haptoglobin and IL-1β postpartum in LoBCS cows. Among genes related with oxidative stress, the expression of the cytosolic antioxidant enzyme SOD1 was greater in LoBCS compared to HiBCS. Cows in LoBCS compared with HiBCS had greater overall expression of ABDH5 and ATGL along with ADIPOQ, indicating enhanced basal lipolysis and secretion of adiponectin. Expression of CPT1A, ACADVL, and ACOX1 was greater overall in HiBCS than LoBCS indicating enhanced NEFA oxidation. Although the temporal increase in plasma NEFA regardless of BCS coincided with the profile of CPT1A, the gradual decrease in genes related with re-esterification of NEFA (PCK1) and glycerol efflux (AQP7) coupled with an increase in glycerol kinase (GK) suggested some stimulation of NEFA utilization within adipose tissue. This idea is supported in part by the gradual decrease in insulin regardless of BCS. Although expression of the inflammation-related gene toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was greater in HiBCS versus LoBCS cows at −10 d, expression of TLR9 was greater in HiBCS versus LoBCS at 20 d. These profiles did not seem to be associated with concentrations of pro-inflammatory biomarkers or ROM. Conclusions Overall, data indicated that cows with BCS 3.25 or lower before calving experienced greater alterations in systemic inflammation and basal lipolysis without excessive increases in NEFA plasma concentrations. Despite the greater plasma NEFA around parturition, cows with BCS 3.75 or higher seemed to have a more active system for catabolism of NEFA and utilization of glycerol within adipose tissue. A linkage between those pathways and risk of disorders postpartum remains to be determined.


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