Age-related Beta-synuclein Alters the p53/Mdm2 Pathway and Induces the Apoptosis of Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells In Vitro

Published on 2018-07-11T14:01:41Z (GMT) by
<div><p>Increased β-synuclein (Sncb) expression has been described in the aging visual system. Sncb functions as the physiological antagonist of α-synuclein (Snca), which is involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. However, the exact function of Sncb remains unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the age-dependent role of Sncb in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). BMECs were isolated from the cortices of 5- to 9-d-old Sprague-Dawley rats and were cultured with different concentrations of recombinant Sncb (rSncb) up to 72 h resembling to some degree age-related as well as pathophysiological conditions. Viability, apoptosis, expression levels of Snca, and the members of phospholipase D2 (Pld2)/<i>p</i>53/ Mouse double minute 2 homolog (Mdm2)/p19(Arf) pathway, response in RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt), and stress-mediating factors such as heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 (Hmox) and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxygenase 4 (Nox4) were examined. rSncb-induced effects were confirmed through <i>Sncb</i> small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown in BMECs. We demonstrated that the viability decreases, while the rate of apoptosis underly dose-dependent alterations. For example, apoptosis increases in BMECs following the treatment with higher dosed rSncb. Furthermore, we observed a decrease in Snca immunostaining and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels following the exposure to higher rScnb concentrations. Akt was shown to be downregulated and pAkt upregulated by this treatment, which was accompanied by a dose-independent increase in p19(Arf) levels and enhanced intracellular Mdm2 translocation in contrast to a dose-dependent <i>p</i>53 activation. Moreover, Pld2 activity was shown to be induced in rSncb-treated BMECs. The expression of Hmox and Nox4 after Sncb treatment was altered on BEMCs. The obtained results demonstrate dose-dependent effects of Sncb on BMECs in vitro. For example, the <i>p</i>53-mediated and Akt-independent apoptosis together with the stress-mediated response of BMECs related to exposure of higher SNCB concentrations may reflect the increase in Sncb with duration of culture as well as its impact on cell decay. Further studies, expanding on the role of Sncb, may help understand its role in the neurodegenerative diseases.</p></div>

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Brockhaus, Katrin; Böhm, Michael R. R.; Melkonyan, Harutyun; Thanos, Solon (2018): Age-related Beta-synuclein Alters the p53/Mdm2 Pathway and Induces the Apoptosis of Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells In Vitro. SAGE Journals. Collection.