A Fundamental Experiment in Physics.pdf (1.34 MB)

An Experiment to test a New Theory in Physics, fundamentally different from General Relativity, by changing the speed of light in Electromagnetic Interaction

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posted on 2024-05-10, 07:16 authored by Wim VegtWim Vegt

The fundamental foundation for Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity is the “Curvature of Space and Time” due to a Gravitational Field. In the “Theory of General Relativity” Gravitational RedShift has been explained by a change in time and space resulting is a change in the observed frequency shift in the spectrum of the light being emitted by far away Galaxies. The foundation for Einstein’s theory of General Relativity is a constant value for the speed of light in the absence of a gravitational field.

In the “New Theory” the fundamental foundation is “Equilibrium”. Equilibrium for the “5 fundamental force densities in light” in any direction at any time and at any location. The New Theory describes a changing in the speed of light when corresponding monochromatic beams of light (highly coherent LASER beams) cross each other in different directions which effect would be in contradiction with the fundamental assumption in General Relativity of a constant speed of light. This experiment will be a determining test for the New Theory in Physics.

In this new theory the interaction between gravity and light has been discussed at astronomical levels: Gravitational RedShift, Black Holes and Dark Matter and at sub-atomic levels: The absorption and emission of light at sub-atomic levels in concentric spheres by an atom at discrete energy levels.

Differently than in General Relativity, the Interaction between Gravity and Light [35] fundamentally has been based on the sum of the “Stress Energy Tensor” and the introduced “Gravitational Tensor”. The theory describes “Gravitational-Electromagnetic Interaction” resulting in a mathematical Tensor presentation for BLACK HOLEs. (Gravitational Electromagnetic Confinements) [1] The “Electromagnetic Energy Gradient” creates a second order effect “Lorentz Transformation” which results in the Gravitational Field of BLACK HOLEs which determines the interaction force density between the confinement of Light (BLACK HOLE’s) and the Gravitational Field. Einstein approached the interaction between gravity and light by the introduction of the “Einstein Gravitational Constant” in the 4-dimensional Energy-Stress Tensor (1). In this alternative approach related to General Relativity, the interaction between gravity and light has been presented by the sum of the Electromagnetic Tensor and the Gravitational Tensor (2) . The new theory describes the impact of "CURL" [38] within the gravitational fields around Black Holes and the impact on Gravitational Lensing. Gravitational "CURL" (Equation 6) is an effect which cannot be explained and calculated by General Relativity. The new approach presents mathematical solutions for the BLACK HOLEs (Gravitational Electromagnetic Interaction) introduced in 1955 by Jonh Archibald Wheeler in the publication in Physical Review Letters in 1955 [1]. The mathematical solutions for BLACK HOLEs are fundamental solutions for the relativistic quantum mechanical Dirac equation (Quantum Physics) in Tensor presentation (41). Assuming a constant speed of light “c” and Planck’s constant ħ within the BLACK HOLE, the radius “R” of the BLACK HOLE with the energy of a proton, is about 1% of the radius of the hydrogen atom (14). The New Theory has been tested in an experiment with 2 Galileo Satellites and a Ground Station by measuring the Gravitational RedShift in an by the Ground Station emitted stable MASER frequency [2]. The difference between the calculation for Gravitational RedShift, within the Gravitational Field of the Earth, in “General Relativity” and the “New Theory” is smaller than 10-16 (12) and (13). In all “General Redshift Experiments” General Relativity and the New Theory predict a Gravitational RedShift with a difference smaller than 15 digits beyond the decimal point which is beyond the accuracy of modern “Gravitational Redshift” observations. Both values are always within the measured Gravitational RedShift in all observations being published since the first observation of the gravitational redshift in the spectral lines from the White Dwarf which was the measurement of the shift of the star Sirius B, the white dwarf companion to the star Sirius, by W.S. Adams in 1925 at Mt. Wilson Observatory. Theories which unify Quantum Physics and General Relativity [32], like “String Theory”, predict the non-constancy of natural constants. Accurate observations of the NASA Messenger [11] observe in time a value for the gravitational constant “G” which constrains until ( /G to be < 4 × 10-14 per year) . One of the characteristics of the New Theory is the “Constant Value” in time for the Gravitational Constant “G” in unifying General Relativity and Quantum Physics.