In vitro enzyme inhibitory and anti-oxidant properties, cytotoxicity and chemical composition of the halophyte Malcolmia littorea (L.) R.Br. (Brassicaceae)
This work reports for the first time the in vitro anti-oxidant (towards DPPH, ABTS, copper and iron), enzymatic inhibitory (on AChE, BuChE, α-glucosidase, α-amylase and tyrosinase), cytotoxicity (towards HepG2 and HEK 293 cells), and metabolomics (by HPLC-MS) of extracts from organs of Malcolmia littorea (L.) R.Br. Extracts were constituted mainly by phenolic acids and flavonoids, and main compounds were salicylic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. Samples showed reduced radical scavenging and metal chelating capacity, and only the methanol extracts reduced iron. The root’s ethanol and methanol extracts, and the aerial organ’s ethanol extract exhibited the highest AChE inhibition. The root’s ethanol extract displayed dual anti-cholinesterase activity. Samples showed a low capacity to inhibit α-amylase, but a high α-glucosidase inhibition was obtained with the root’s and flower’s ethanol extracts, and flower’s methanol extract. Overall, samples displayed a high inhibition against tyrosinase, reduced HepG2 cellular viability and were less toxic towards HEK 293 cells.