Pomegranate Fruit and Juice (cv. Mollar), Rich in Ellagitannins and Anthocyanins, Also Provide a Significant Content of a Wide Range of Proanthocyanidins
journal contributionposted on 2019-02-15, 00:00 authored by Huertas M. Díaz-Mula, Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán, Rocío García-Villalba
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) were characterized in husk, membranes, arils, and seeds of ‘Mollar de Elche’ pomegranate cultivar using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry after acid catalysis in the presence of phloroglucinol (phloroglucinolysis). PAs were also evaluated in commercial juice and in the juice made in the laboratory by pressing fresh arils. Pomegranate PAs were composed of a very rich mixture of flavan-3-ols: catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, and epicatechin gallate. Catechins and gallocatechins were the most abundant units, while galloylated flavanols were detected at lower concentrations. The highest PA content was found in husk (1840.5 μg/g), followed by seeds (316.2 μg/g) and membranes (51.4 μg/g). With regard to the pomegranate edible parts, arils showed concentrations of 34.4 μg/g and pressed aril juice of 21.3 mg/L, lower than those found in other traditional PA-containing food and beverages, such as apple, grapes, chocolate, red wine, or tea. Higher concentrations similar to those found in red wine were observed in commercial whole fruit pressed pomegranate juice (146.9 mg/L). These PA concentrations represented between 0.1 and 7% of the total polyphenol content in the different pomegranate samples, which were richer in ellagitannins and anthocyanins. The mean degree of polymerization (1.2–2.1) revealed that PAs in Mollar pomegranate samples are constituted mainly of monomers and dimers, which may influence in better absorption and bioavailability of these compounds.