Egg consumption and human health: an umbrella review of observational studies
Egg consumption has been an area of controversy regarding its impact on human health largely due to the content in cholesterol and its potential role in cardio-metabolic outcomes. This study aimed to summarise the level of evidence of egg consumption on various health outcomes. A systematic search for meta-analyses was performed: study design, dose–response relationship, heterogeneity and agreement of results over time, and identification of potential confounding factors were considered to assess the level of evidence. Results from this umbrella review showed a substantial no association between egg consumption and a number of health outcomes, including cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. In contrast, evidence of possible beneficial effects toward stroke risk has been found. In conclusions, egg may be part of a healthy diet; however, additional studies exploring confounding factors are needed to ascertain the potential detrimental effects.