Relationships between hypothetical ecosystem attributes and anthropogenic pressures.
Attribute values range from unstressed to stressed (sensu ), and the levels of the pressures applied have been scaled relative to a theoretical maximum. A utility threshold cannot be defined objectively for the linear model (a), but can be defined objectively for the two piecewise models (b and c) and the sigmoidal model (d). Equations for the models and the location of the utility thresholds are described in Text S1. In (b-d), the threshold pressure is indicated by the dashed lines.