Conjugated ubiquitin accumulation at sites associated with incoming viral genomes is dependent on RNF8 and RNF168.

(A) RNF8-/- MEFs or matched control MEFs were infected with ICP0-null HSV-1 at an MOI of 0.1 for 1 hr. Cells were fixed at 24 hpi, stained for ICP4, and localization of conjugated ubiquitin (FK2) was assessed in asymmetrically infected cells. (B) RIDDLE cells or RIDDLE cells expressing HA-tagged RNF168 were infected and analyzed as in A.