Schematic overview of the experimental setup.
Animals were divided into six groups: CTRL(n = 6), AE(n = 6), AE-ABZ(n = 6), ABZ(n = 6), AE-αPD-L1(n = 6) and αPD-L1(n = 6). CTRL, ABZ and αPD-L1 mice received an intraperitoneal administration of 100 μL PBS. AE, AE-ABZ and AE-αPD-L1 mice were infected intraperitoneally with E. multilocularis metacestode suspension containing approximately 100 vesicular cysts resuspended in 100 μL PBS. Treatment started 6 weeks after infection. CTRL and AE mice received 100 μL corn oil orally 5 times per week and 100 μL PBS intraperitoneally twice per week for another 8 weeks. AE-ABZ and ABZ mice received ABZ (200 mg/kg body weight) in 100 μL corn oil orally 5 times per week and 100 μL PBS intraperitoneally twice per week for 8 weeks. AE-αPD-L1 and αPD-L1 mice received αPD-L1 antibody in 100 μL PBS intraperitoneally twice per week (200 μg/injection) and 100 μL corn oil orally 5 times per week. All animals were sacrificed at the end of treatment. Smart Servier Medical Art, smart.servier.com, was used to draw the figure.