Maximum clade credibility phylogeny for relationships among species of Ruellia.
Colored boxes show each taxon’s character states: bird-adapted (red), bee-adapted (blue), wet forest inhabiting (purple), and New World residency (green). The two vertical lines demarcate the crown age for the oldest hummingbird (R. fulgens; Guiana Shield; red) and the oldest bee (R. alboviolacea; Mexico; blue) lineage among Neotropical Ruellia; both date to ~5.8 Ma. Photos are examples of bird (red, yellow, and pink-flowered) and bee-adapted (purple flowered) species of Ruellia. From top to bottom: R. patula, R. insignis, R. elegans, R. galeottii, R. speciosa, R. lantanoglandulosa, R. maya, R. affinis, R. pittieri, R. haenkeana, R. matudae, R. pearcei. Phylogeny is reprinted from Tripp & McDade (2014) under a CC BY license, with permission from Aliso, original copyright in 2014.