Expansion of transit amplifying cells in animals with colitis.
(A) Markers of goblet cells, enterocytes (Ent.), enteroendocrine cells (EE), and stem cells measured by RNA microarray. Each gene was mean centered, and the means of inflamed and noninflamed groups are indicated in red and gray, respectively. Horizontal and vertical lines represent mean +/− standard error. Significance was determined by unpaired t test. * represents p ≤ 0.05, ** represents p ≤ 0.01, *** represents p ≤ 0.001. (B) Average fold change between inflamed and noninflamed groups for each of the genes in panel A. (C) Enrichment plots for experimentally derived gene sets for secretory progenitors (Secpro), stem cells, enterocytes (Ent), goblet cell-deficient epithelium (Atoh null), and transit-amplifying cell (TAC) epithelium. (D) Normalized enrichment scores for the gene sets indicated in panel C; false discovery rate (FDR) values are indicated above or below each bar. (E) Mean-centered expression values of the 4 chemokines found in the TAC gene set. The means of inflamed and noninflamed groups are indicated in red and gray, respectively. Horizontal and vertical lines represent mean +/− standard error. All genes showed a p < 0.001 in a t test, as indicated by ***. Underlying numerical values for panels A and C–E are provided in S1 Data.