Odds Ratio (95% CI)1 for overweight/obesity2 for each SES quintile3 compared to lowest SES quintile within each race/ethnicity category4.
(1) Odds Ratios are derived from generalized estimating equation models with a logit link, weighted by sample weights and with Huber-White standard errors to correct for potentially correlated outcomes resulting from the complex survey design. The model included the following variables: SES; race/ethnicity; age; age squared; age cubed; SES by race/ethnicity by age interaction; SES by race/ethnicity interaction; SES by age interaction; race/ethnicity by age interaction; sex; household structure; maternal age.
(2) Overweight/obesity is defined as body mass index (BMI) z-score >2 standard deviations (SD) above age- and sex- specific WHO Childhood Growth Standard reference mean at all time points except birth, where we define overweight/obesity as weight-for-age z-score >2 SD above age- and sex- specific WHO Childhood Growth Standard reference mean.
(3) To represent socioeconomic status, we used a composite index to capture multiple of the social dimensions of socioeconomic status. This composite index was provided in the ECLS-B data that incorporates information about maternal and paternal education, occupations, and household income to create a variable representing family socioeconomic status on several domains.
(4) We created a 5-category race/ethnicity variable (American Indian/Alaska Native, African American, Hispanic, Asian, white) from the mothers' report of child's race/ethnicity, which originally came 25 race/ethnic categories. To have adequate sample size in race/ethnic categories, we assigned a single race/ethnic category for children reporting more than one race, using an ordered, stepwise approach similar to previously published work using ECLS-B .