Tower- and chamber-based greenhouse gas flux measurements from Howland Forest, Maine (2012-2018)
Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the greenhouse gases largely responsible for anthropogenic climate change. Natural plant and microbial metabolic processes play a major role in the global atmospheric budget of each. We have been studying ecosystem-atmosphere trace gas exchange at a sub-boreal forest in the northeastern United States for over two decades. Historically our emphasis was on turbulent fluxes of CO2 and water vapor. In 2012 we embarked on an expanded campaign to also measure CH4 and N2O. Here we present continuous tower-based measurements of the ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CO2 and CH4, recorded over the period 2012-2018 and reported at a 30-minute time step. Additionally, we describe a five-year (2012-2016) dataset of chamber-based measurements of soil fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O (2013-2016 only), conducted each year from May to November. These data can be used for process studies, for biogeochemical and land surface model validation and benchmarking, and for regional-to-global upscaling and budgeting analyses.