Relationship between total and segmental bone mineral density and different domains of physical activity among children and adolescents: cross-sectional study
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between total and segmental bone mineral density (BDM) and physical activity (PA) in different domains (school, leisure and sports) among adolescents and children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in the Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP). METHODS: The study sample consisted of 173 children and adolescents (10.31 ± 1.87 years). The BMDs for the whole body (WB) and the regions of the trunk and legs were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). PA was measured using the Baecke questionnaire. A regression model was used to analyze the relationship between all the BMDs and the different domains of PA. RESULTS: 41.5% of the adolescents had high percentages of body fat. Regarding the comparison between physically active and insufficiently active adolescents, there were no statistically significant differences in any BMD variables (P > 0.05). The BMD of the legs showed positive relationships with the total PA (β = 0.009; P = 0.013) and sports PA (β = 0.010; P = 0.049) after insertion of the confounders. Similarly, the WB BMD showed the same relationships (total PA: β = 0.005; P = 0.045; and sports PA: β = 0.008; P = 0.049). No relationship was found between leisure and school PA and any of the BMDs (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that practice of sport was related to higher BMD values, independent of sex, age and body fatness.