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Global Human Modification

posted on 2018-12-26, 15:30 authored by Christina M. Kennedy, James OakleafJames Oakleaf, David M. Theobald, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Joseph Kiesecker
The global Human Modification map (HM) provides a cumulative measure of human modification of terrestrial lands across the globe at a 1-km resolution. It is a continuous 0-1 metric that reflects the proportion of a landscape modified based on modeling the physical extents of 13 anthropogenic stressors and their estimated impacts using spatially-explicit global datasets with a median year of 2016.

The HM map was developed by scientists at The Nature Conservancy and Conservation Science Partners. For questions or feedback on this map please contact Christina Kennedy ( or James Oakleaf. We welcome the opportunity to hear from and to collaborate with researchers on projects that integrate the HM map into their work.

For a description of the methods and to cite the use of HM map, see:
Kennedy CM, Oakleaf JR, Theobald DM, Baruch‐Mordo S, Kiesecker J. Managing the middle: A shift in conservation priorities based on the global human modification gradient. Glob Change Biol. 2019;25:811–826.

Interactive data viewer available at:


Funding for this research was provided by The Nature Conservancy, Anne Ray Charitable Trust, The 3M Foundation, and NASA Land Cover Land Use Change Program.