Data_Sheet_1_Compositional Shift of Bacterial, Archaeal, and Fungal Communities Is Dependent on Trophic Lifestyles in Rice Paddy Soil.zip
The soil environment determines plants’ health and performance during their life cycle. Therefore, ecological understanding on variations in soil environments, including physical, chemical, and biological properties, is crucial for managing agricultural fields. Here, we present a comprehensive and extensive blueprint of the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities in rice paddy soils with differing soil types and chemical properties. We discovered that natural variations of soil nutrients are important factors shaping microbial diversity. The responses of microbial diversity to soil nutrients were related to the distribution of microbial trophic lifestyles (oligotrophy and copiotrophy) in each community. The compositional changes of bacterial and archaeal communities in response to soil nutrients were mainly governed by oligotrophs, whereas copiotrophs were mainly involved in fungal compositional changes. Compositional shift of microbial communities by fertilization is linked to switching of microbial trophic lifestyles. Random forest models demonstrated that depletion of prokaryotic oligotrophs and enrichment of fungal copiotrophs are the dominant responses to fertilization in low-nutrient conditions, whereas enrichment of putative copiotrophs was important in high-nutrient conditions. Network inference also revealed that trophic lifestyle switching appertains to decreases in intra- and inter-kingdom microbial associations, diminished network connectivity, and switching of hub nodes from oligotrophs to copiotrophs. Our work provides ecological insight into how soil nutrient-driven variations in microbial communities affect soil health in modern agricultural systems.