Vpr enhances single-cycle HIV-1 infection of activated PBMCs, primary CD4+ T cells, and MDDCs.
(A) PHA-activated peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMCs), (B) PHA-activated CD4+ T cells, and (C) Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) were infected at an MOI of 1.0 with single-cycle HIV-1 Vpr+/VSV-G and HIV-1 Vpr−/VSV-G to test the role of Vpr in HIV-1 infection. Luciferase expression from the integrated provirus in the infected cells was assessed at the indicated time and normalized to protein content (10 µg/sample). The data shown represents one of three independent experiments carried out for each cell type from three different donors. Error bars represent the standard deviation of the mean of triplicate samples. Statistically significant differences are indicated by the asterisks (P<0.05).