Systemic administration of IL-10 diminishes SPX-induced fat accumulation, infiltration of macrophages, and pro-inflammatory responses in the islets.

(A) Representative images of CD11c staining (upper sections) and CD206 staining (lower sections) in intra-islet areas in pancreas sections from each group. Scale bar = 100 µm. (B−D) CD11c-positive areas (B), CD206-positive areas (C), and M1/M2 ratios (D) in the islets in each group (n = 6). *P<0.05 vs. the Standard-Sham group, #P<0.05 vs. the HF-Sham group. (E) Serum levels of IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-10 in sham and SPX mice fed standard chow or a HF diet. *P<0.05 vs. the Standard-Sham group, #P<0.05 vs. the Standard-SPX group. (F) Serum cytokine changes relative to the Standard-Sham group. *P<0.05 vs. IL-1β and MCP-1. (G) Serum leptin levels in each group (n = 6). *P<0.05 vs. the Standard-Sham group, #P<0.05 vs. the HF-Sham group, $P<0.05 vs. the HF-SPX group. Treatment groups: Standard-Sham, fed standard chow, given serum albumin, and sham-operated; HF-Sham, fed a HF diet, administered serum albumin, and sham-operated; HF-SPX, fed a HF diet, given serum albumin, and splenectomized; HF-SPX+IL-10, fed a HF diet, given IL-10, and splenectomized; Pair-fed, administered serum albumin, sham-operated, and fed the same amount of food as that consumed by the HF-SPX group.