Summary of major alterations to gene expression and their proposed effects in <i>tko<sup>25t</sup></i> flies.

<p>(a, b) Proposed metabolic effects, based on differences in gene expression affecting nutrition and metabolism between (a) wild-type and (b) <i>tko<sup>25t</sup></i> flies. In wild-type flies glucose is metabolized via PEP to pyruvate, which is then fed to the TCA cycle mainly via the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex generating acetyl-CoA, with a small amount converted to oxaloacetate to replenish the TCA cycle intermediates as needed, maintaining a supply of carbon skeletons for biosynthesis. Surplus NADH is reoxidized via the ETC (complexes I, III and IV), generating potentially most of the cell's ATP needs at complex V. In <i>tko<sup>25t</sup></i> flies, the maximal activity of the ETC complexes is only 10–20% that of wild-type flies <a href="" target="_blank">[18]</a>. For simplicity, its greatly decreased contribution to NADH oxidation and ATP generation is omitted altogether in panel (b). Instead, the bulk of ATP must be supplied by glycolysis, with NADH reoxidation dependent on lactate dehydrogenase and similar shunts. Because pyruvate is, under such conditions, mainly shunted to lactate, the TCA cycle must be supplied from other sources, via the mobilization of dietary lipids, generating acetyl-CoA, PEP carboxykinase (I) diverting a small amount of PEP to oxaloacetate, and the mobilization of dietary protein and amino acid catabolism supplying these and other TCA cycle intermediates, as well as biosynthetic reactions directly. The modifications to metabolism in <i>tko<sup>25t</sup></i> flies are accompanied (c) by altered expression of genes connected with nutrient breakdown, absorption and transport, plus xenobiotic handling, affecting mainly the gut, Malpighian tubule and fat body. In addition, there is downregulation or delayed expression of genes connected with gametogenesis and skeletogenesis, and, notably in males, altered expression of genes controlling circadian and courtship behaviour, interpretable as a biological response to poor nutritional conditions.</p>