Study Design.

The observation period for each patient begins with initiation of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and continues for 12 weeks. All patients were admitted to hospital for an acute myocardial infarction or heart failure at some point during the 12-week observation period, which for analytical purposes is divided into three identical 4-week intervals. The first of these is the risk interval, and the final interval defined the control interval.

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