Social interaction behavior in male and female California mice four weeks after social defeat.

<p>In the apparatus used for testing (A), the interaction zone is indicated by a blue box and the corner zones indicated by red boxes. There were no significant differences when mice were tested with an empty cage (B). Females, but not males exposed to social defeat showed reduced social interaction behavior with a novel mouse (C). Immediately after the social interaction test mice were euthanized and vaginal lavage was conducted to determine estrous cycle stage. Social defeat reduced social interaction time at different stages of the estrous cycle (D). Corticosterone levels measured immediately after social interaction testing were higher in females compared to males (E). * main effect of sex p<0.05, ** planned comparison control group versus stress group p<0.01. *** planned comparison control group versus stress group p<0.01. All data are mean±s.e.</p>

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