Several TE families are associated with stress-induced up-regulation of gene expression.

<p>(A) and (B) Fold enrichment for down-regulated (A) and up-regulated (B) genes for 283 TE families with the number of expressed WGS genes over 10 is shown as a heat map for four abiotic stress conditions. (C) Fold-enrichment values for each of the 20 TE families associated with gene up-regulation in response to abiotic stress are shown as a heat map. (D) Comparison of distributions of log<sub>2</sub> (stress/control) values between all genes and genes located near certain TE families. The distribution of all genes is shown using a violin plot while the expression changes for individual genes are shown using colored dots. Genes located near <i>ipiki</i> elements are shown on the left and genes located near <i>etug</i> elements are shown on the right with the colors indicating the different environmental stresses. (E) The relative proportion of WGS genes turned on or up-regulated following stress that are associated with the TE families (from C) is indicated for each stress condition in B73. Total number of up-regulated genes is shown for each stress. The expected proportion of genes with insertions of TEs from the enriched families for all expressed genes is less than 1% for all stresses.</p>