Several TE families are associated with stress-induced up-regulation of gene expression.

(A) and (B) Fold enrichment for down-regulated (A) and up-regulated (B) genes for 283 TE families with the number of expressed WGS genes over 10 is shown as a heat map for four abiotic stress conditions. (C) Fold-enrichment values for each of the 20 TE families associated with gene up-regulation in response to abiotic stress are shown as a heat map. (D) Comparison of distributions of log2 (stress/control) values between all genes and genes located near certain TE families. The distribution of all genes is shown using a violin plot while the expression changes for individual genes are shown using colored dots. Genes located near ipiki elements are shown on the left and genes located near etug elements are shown on the right with the colors indicating the different environmental stresses. (E) The relative proportion of WGS genes turned on or up-regulated following stress that are associated with the TE families (from C) is indicated for each stress condition in B73. Total number of up-regulated genes is shown for each stress. The expected proportion of genes with insertions of TEs from the enriched families for all expressed genes is less than 1% for all stresses.