Respiration studies of hepatic mitochondria isolated from mice fed very low protein and carbohydrate, very high fat diets.

<p>(<b>A</b>) Respiration rates in the basal leak condition (state 2), ADP-stimulated condition (state 3), F<sub>1</sub>F<sub>0</sub>-ATPase independent condition (state 4), and uncoupled condition in hepatic mitochondria isolated from chow-fed, VLP/C<sup>+</sup>-fed, and VLP/C<sup>-</sup>-fed (for 6 weeks) mice using palmitoyl-L-carnitine and malate as substrates. <i>n</i>=4 mice/group. (<b>B</b>) Relative respiratory ratios of basal leak (state 2/state 3), respiratory control (RCR, state 3/state 4), and coupling control (CCR, state 4/uncoupled), derived from panel A. (<b>C</b>) Respiration rates in states 2-4 and while uncoupled in hepatic mitochondria isolated from chow-, VLP/C<sup>+</sup>, and VLP/C<sup>-</sup>-fed mice that respired using the Complex II-electron donor substrate succinate in the presence of rotenone (Complex I activity inhibitor). n=9 mice/group. (<b>D</b>) Relative respiratory ratios of state 2/state 3, state 3/state 4, and state 4/uncoupled, derived from panel C. (<b>E</b>) Respiration rates in states 2-4 in hepatic mitochondria isolated from chow-, VLP/C<sup>+</sup>, and VLP/C<sup>-</sup>-fed mice that respired using the Complex III-donor substrate duroquinol plus rotenone. n=9 mice/group. (<b>F</b>) Relative respiratory ratios of state 2/state 3, state 3/state 4, and state 4/uncoupled, derived from panel E. (<b>G</b>) Respiration rates in states 2-4 in hepatic mitochondria isolated from chow-, VLP/C<sup>+</sup>, and VLP/C<sup>-</sup>-fed mice that respired using the Complex IV-donor substrate combination TMPD/ascorbate, plus rotenone. n=9 mice/group. (<b>H</b>) Relative respiratory ratios of state 2/state 3, state 3/state 4, and state 4/uncoupled, derived from panel G. Data are presented as means±SEM. *<i>p</i>≤0.05; **<i>p</i>≤0.01 by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc testing.</p>