Predicted patterns of biophysical stimuli in FE models of immobilised (boxed, right column of each panel) compared to normal developing femora.

Illustrations show the FE mesh (A), the placement of the loads for both flexion (B) and extension (C) and the plane of section (D) shown in E, F and G. The patterns of Von Mises stress (E), Maximum (tension) (F) and Minimum (compression) (G) Principal stress, were captured in equivalent sections through the distal femur (indicated in D) at HH30 (row i), HH32 (ii) and HH34 (iii). Patterns at mid flexion and extension are shown for the normal models whereas the constant pattern during rigid paralysis is shown for immobilised. Stimuli patterns for normal contractions are captured from simulations previously described [30].