Methods used to describe membrane properties of NVmes neurons.

<p>A: Hyperpolarizing and depolarizing current injections of 1 s duration were used to construct current voltage relationships. A cursor was used to measure the trans-membrane voltage just before the end of the current step. B: The points of inflection on the I–V curve were taken as the thresholds for inward and outward rectification. C: Data from the depolarizing current pulses was also used to calculate firing threshold, action potential amplitude and half-width, afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude and duration. D: Maximum oscillation amplitude (inset), and thresholds for high-frequency oscillations and for burst firing were also measured with the cursor.</p>