Many models are consistent with the data.

<p><b>A)</b> Eight model functions were fitted to an example tuning curve (gray error bars denote std.) from the transparent afix condition. Due to the tuning curve’s large error bars all models provided good fits even though they clearly differ. <b>B)</b> According to a goodness-of-fit score (see main text) all eight models provided good fits for almost all cells, independent of experimental condition and paradigm. <b>C)</b> The Akaike Information Criterion AIC was thus employed to select the best (ΔAIC = 0) or at least close to best (ΔAIC≤1) model for each cell. The fraction of cells for which each model constitutes the respective best or almost best model is illustrated with full and light bars. No model was chosen for all cells, still the most widely selected model was the fourth order Fourier series (<i>F</i>4). Both of these facts mirror the high heterogeneity in the data that is hard to capture in a single tuning curve shape. <b>Color code</b> red: 2nd order Fourier (F2); blue: 3rd order Fourier (F3); green: 4th order Fourier (F4); violet: symmetric Beta (s<i>β</i>); orange—von Mises (vM); yellow: wrapped Cauchy (wC); brown: wrapped Gaussian (wG); pink: wrapped generalized bell-shaped membership function (wB).</p>