α‑Geminal Dihydroxymethyl Piperidine and Pyrrolidine Iminosugars: Synthesis, Conformational Analysis, Glycosidase Inhibitory Activity, and Molecular Docking Studies

The Jocic–Reeve and Corey–Link type reaction of dichloromethyllithium with suitably protected 5-keto-hexofuranoses followed by treatment with sodium azide and sodium borohydride reduction gave 5-azido-5-hydroxylmethyl substituted hexofuranoses 7ac with required geminal dihydroxymethyl group. Removal of protecting groups and converting the C-1 anomeric carbon into free hemiacetal followed by intramolecular reductive aminocyclization with in situ generated C5-amino functionality afforded corresponding 5C-dihydroxymethyl piperidine iminosugars 2ac. Alternatively, removal of protecting groups in 7b and 7c and chopping of C1-anomeric carbon gave C2-aldehyde that on intramolecular reductive aminocyclization with C5-amino gave 4C-dihydroxymethyl pyrrolidine iminosugars 1b and 1c, respectively. On the basis of the 1H NMR studies, the conformations of 2a/2b were assigned as 4C1 and that of 2c as 1C4. The glycosidase inhibitory activities of all five iminosugars were studied with various glycosidase enzymes and compared with natural d-gluco-1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). All the five compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of rice α-glucosidase with Ki and IC50 values in the nanomolar concentration range. Iminosugars 2b and 1b were found to be more potent inhibitors than their parent iminosugar. These results were substantiated by in silico molecular docking studies.