Extracts of Feijoa Inhibit Toll-Like Receptor 2 Signaling and Activate Autophagy Implicating a Role in Dietary Control of IBD

<div><p>Background</p><p>Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease affecting the gut with limited treatment success for its sufferers. This suggests the need for better understanding of the different subtypes of the disease as well as nutritional interventions to compliment current treatments. In this study we assess the ability of a hydrophilic feijoa fraction (F3) to modulate autophagy a process known to regulate inflammation, via TLR2 using IBD cell lines.</p><p>Method</p><p>Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) deleted for ATG5, and two intestinal epithelial cells HCT15 and HCT116, were used to test the anti-inflammatory effect of F3 after stimulating the cells with a TLR2 specific ligand PAM3CSK4.</p><p>Results</p><p>F3 was able to reduce TLR2 specific inflammation and stimulate autophagy in MEFs and HCT15 cells but not in HCT116 cells. The anti-inflammatory effect was reduced in the MEF cells deleted for ATG5. In addition, the activation of autophagy by F3 was enhanced by PAM3CSK4.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>F3 of feijoa can interact with cells via a TLR2 specific mechanism and reduce Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in part due to stimulation of autophagy. These results suggest that there is potential benefit in using feijoa extracts as part of dietary interventions to manage IBD in patients.</p></div>