Experimental scheme.

Young adult C57BL/6J male mice (8 weeks old) were first entrained to a 12∶12 LD photoperiodic cycle for two weeks with food and water available ad libitum. Then mice were randomly divided into three groups: food available ad libitum (AF), food available during the late day (ZT 6 to 11) (DF), and food available during the late night (ZT 18 to 23) (NF) with water available all the time. This time-restrictive feeding regimen was maintained either up to the end of each experiment or for 4 weeks and then returned to ad libitum feeding (Figure 2 and 3). Gray bar indicates major meal time of normal adult mouse (Figure S1A).