Estimated decrease in brood production exhibited by <i>Bombus terrestris</i> colonies during pulsed exposure to realistic imidacloprid residues, equivalent to those previously detected in nectar of treated crops.

2013-11-04T03:44:07Z (GMT) by Ian Laycock James E. Cresswell
<p>Reductions are relative to the number of brood produced in undosed control colonies and were obtained using the appropriate BHM best-fit dose-response relationship from <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079872#pone-0079872-g002" target="_blank">Figure 2</a>. The reduction's 95% confidence intervals, given in parentheses, were also obtained from BHMs in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079872#pone-0079872-g002" target="_blank">Figure 2</a>.</p>a<p>Refers to the estimated decrease in brood production expected after a 14-day exposure to imidacloprid at the given dosage.</p>b<p>Refers to the estimated total decrease in brood after a 28-day pulsed exposure at the given dosage (14 days ‘on dose’, 14 days ‘off dose’).</p>c<p>Maximum imidacloprid residues detected in the nectar of oilseed rape <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079872#pone.0079872-EFSA1" target="_blank">[21]</a>. Data originates from studies conducted only in Member States of the European Union (OSR–Europe) and from studies including North America (OSR–USA).</p>d<p>Mean maximum level of neonicotinoid residues in nectar calculated from 20 studies <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079872#pone.0079872-Goulson2" target="_blank">[56]</a>.</p>e<p>Residues in dosed syrup used in a semi-field trial conducted by Gill et al. <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079872#pone.0079872-Gill1" target="_blank">[8]</a>.</p>