Endogenous and chemical chaperones decrease ER stress markers in hIAPP-INS1E cells.

<p>A) BiP and tubulin levels were determined in hIAPP-INS1E cells previously transduced with Ad-BiP or Ad-GFP for 24 hours. Representative western blotting results showing protein expression levels of CHOP, ATF3, BiP, p-eIF2α and β-actin levels in hIAPP-INS1E cells cultured with B) 0.5 µM Thp for 8 hours or C) with 25 mM of glucose and 400 µM palmitic acid (HG+PA) for 24 hours. Representative results from 3 to 5 individual experiments are shown.</p>