Effects of rTMS on L-aPFC.

<p>Schematic representation of rTMS effects on activity in L-aPFC when this area is targeted during the various phases of integration, in comparison with control rTMS (targeting the vertex). The durations reported refer to the various phases of the experimental design. This figure is only to illustrate our interpretation, and it does not represent actual data. The TMS-coil symbols indicate time of rTMS delivery. The hypothesized sustained L-aPFC activity from the loading phase up to integration and the subsequent fading during unloading are directly derived from the results of two previous neuroimaging studies (<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0043731#pone-0043731-g001" target="_blank">Fig. 1</a>) <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0043731#pone.0043731-DePisapia1" target="_blank">[21]</a>, <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0043731#pone.0043731-DePisapia2" target="_blank">[22]</a>. Faster RTs in IN-FIX after rTMS to L-aPFC before loading can be tentatively explained with increased activity in this area inducing stronger control over maintenance of preload information in the face of interference coming from secondary task processing (top panel). Slower RTs in IN-M2 after rTMS to L-aPFC during unloading could be explained with increased activity which induces a difficulty in discharging preload information, which becomes irrelevant after integration has taken place. Of course, further experiments (e.g., including the simultaneous use of TMS and functional neuroimaging recordings) would be needed to validate these hypotheses.</p>