Effects of alcohol drinking on individual song syllables.

Shown are sample spectrograms of single motifs from the same bird in the alcohol group, recorded during (A) Phase II (no alcohol) and (B) Phase III (alcohol); individual syllables are color-coded and labeled 1–4. (C) Plotted are mean values of acoustic features of each syllable during Phases II and III; error bars are Bonferroni-corrected 95% confidence intervals, * indicates significant differences between no alcohol and alcohol conditions.