Due to the path dependence of norm formation, unpopular norms can be established, if the unpopular behavior is initially overrepresented.

<p>In our computer simulations, 80% of individuals belong to population 1 and prefer behavior 1 (<i>S</i> = 0.8). The other model parameters are <i>A</i> = 1, <i>B</i> = 0.5, <i>R</i> = 10, <i>r</i> = 0.01. (a) If the initial average commitment is the same in both populations (<i>p</i><sub>1</sub> = <i>p</i><sub>2</sub> = 0.5), the behavior preferred by the majority wins through, as expected. (b) However, if the initial average commitment in the minority population is high (p<sub>2</sub> = 0.9), while it is low in the majority population (p<sub>1</sub> = 0.25), the behavior preferred by the minority establishes as a norm. (c) The dependence of the final outcome on the initial average commitments p<sub>1</sub> and p<sub>2</sub> can be illustrated by a phase diagram. In this case, the results are for <i>A</i> = 1, <i>B</i> = 0.5, <i>R</i> = 10, <i>r</i> = 0.01, <i>S</i> = 0.8.</p>