Culture supernatants were used in a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to determine ethanol production and glucose consumption.

<p>After 48 hours under hypoxic conditions, ethanol was detected along with a decrease in glucose concentration. Ethanol concentrations decrease over time with a peak at 48 hours. Each value represents mean ± standard error (n = 2 independent cultures). *,**,#p<0.05.</p>