Combined mTOR-ROS inhibition increased mitochondrial membrane potential.
(A) Model predictions were obtained by plotting the intensity for each readout (membrane potential (ψm), mitochondrial mass and DNA damage, respectively) with inhibition of mTOR (x axis) and ROS (y axis). The control (no inhibition) is represented as the point (0, 0). Prediction data are shown at days 12, 15, 18 and 21 post-irradiation. (B) In vitro ψm, mitochondrial mass and DNA damage foci number upon inhibition of ROS, TOR or combined TOR-ROS at days 12, 15, 18 and 21, or 18 and 21 (for DNA damage foci). Cells were treated with 10 nM Torin1 (TOR inhibitor), or Torin1 with SOD and catalase (100 U each) (n = 3, ANOVA with Dunn's post-hoc test, * P<0.05 within time points). (C) Example images of data used in (B) for control cells (left panels) and cells treated with Torin1, SOD and catalase in the medium (right panel) stained for ψm and mitochondrial mass at day 21 (above panel) or for DNA damage foci at day 18 (lower panel).