Associations of between HRQoL and both quantity of lifetime smoking (pack-years) and time since quitting in ex-smokers.

Categories of these variables independently associated with HRQoL and estimates of effects*.

* Categories independently associated with HRQoL (estimate of effect) are shown. Estimates are adjusted for socioeconomic variables, CESD, BMI, co-intoxication and comorbidities (full adjustment).

** The physical functioning score for a man aged 45–64 increases by 0.28 SDS after quitting if he previously smoked between 5–9 pack-years (1–5 pack-years being the reference category).

*** The physical functioning score for a woman aged 25–44 increases by 0.41 SDS between 2 and 5 years after quitting smoking (1 year being the reference category).