Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid.

TNF-α content in BAL fluid of marmoset monkeys was significantly reduced in dexamethasone-treated (dxm, p = 0.04) and roflumilast-treated (rof, p = 0.049) animals in contrast to sham-treated individuals (A). MIP-1β concentrations in BAL fluid were reduced by trend in both treatment groups (sham vs. dxm: p = 0.27; sham vs. rof: p = 0.17) (B). Data are presented as scatter dot plot with median, *p<0.05, ***p<0.0.01, one-tailed Mann-Whitney test against sham.