Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of densities of young population densities on all causes of child mortality (ACCM) for children sleeping without a bed net using the whole dataset <sup>*</sup> (A) for children limited to those who lived far from health facilities using the remote dataset<sup>**</sup> (B). Reference is the lowest young population density quartile group of children.

<p><sup>*</sup> Whole dataset: Dataset covering the whole study area. <sup>**</sup> Remote dataset: Dataset retrieved children of households located far from health facilities more than 3 kilometers from the district hospital or more than 1 kilometer from health centers and dispensaries in the area. Solid lines are point estimates of hazard ratios for Cox PH models within a radius from 100 meters to 3,000 meters and dot vertical lines show the best fit model according to likelihood among models. Among the models in (A), the best fit model was the 900-meter radius model (dotted vertical line) and among the models in (B), it was the 2300-meter radius model (dotted vertical line). Gray bands indicate 95% confidence intervals for each point estimate.</p>