12-month health care costs and utilization, Lyme disease and control groups.

*** statistically significant at p<.001 level,

* Lyme disease sample includes only those persons with a test order and antibiotic treatment within 30 days of the test order, a diagnosis and antibiotic treatment within 30 days of the diagnosis, or a diagnosis, test order and antibiotic treatment within 30 days. The Lyme disease sample includes only those with 18 consecutive months of enrollment, including a 6-month “clean period” of enrollment prior to Lyme disease episode in which they were neither diagnosed with nor tested for Lyme disease.

Lyme disease and control samples are restricted to persons under 65 years of age, in commercial health insurance plans.

Controls were matched to Lyme disease cases on age, sex, region, payer and enrollment year. Control group includes only those with 18 consecutive months of enrollment in a commercial health insurance plan. Control group was restricted to persons with outpatient costs greater than $0.

§ Medicine includes acupuncture, home health, home infusion and other special services, procedures and reports.

|| Adjusted impact calculations based on GLM regression analysis using the Huber/White sandwich estimator of variance and adjusting for year, region, age, and sex, and controlling for 44 high-cost conditions

Adjusted ratio calculations for outpatient and emergency visits are based on negative binomial regression analysis using the Huber/White sandwich estimator of variance and adjusting for year, region, age, and sex, and controlling for 44 high-cost conditions.

12-month health care costs and utilization, Lyme disease and control groups.