Z-type electronic structure and enhanced photocatalytic performance of silver tungstate – phosphorus and aluminum co-doped zinc oxide heterogeneous catalysts

<p>The Z-type electronic structure visible-light-driven silver tungstate–phosphorus and aluminum co-doped zinc oxide (Ag<sub>2</sub>WO<sub>4</sub>−PAZO) heterogeneous catalyst was synthesised by a facile hydrothermal method, wherein the proposed Z-type photocatalytic mechanism was supported by the characterisation of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, reactive species, etc. The photocatalytical capacity was demonstrated by degrading the tetracycline hydrochloride (TC-HCl) antibiotics, and it was necessary to eliminate serious pollution caused by the abuse of TC-HCl. In addition, the heterogeneous catalyst showed higher photoactivity than single PAZO or Ag<sub>2</sub>WO<sub>4</sub> catalyst, which was due to its lower photoexcited electron-hole separation. Multiple measurements were applied to characterise the morphology and optical property of the heterogeneous catalyst. The Ag<sub>2</sub>WO<sub>4</sub>−PAZO heterogeneous materials also showed more stability compared with Ag<sub>2</sub>WO<sub>4</sub> material.</p>