Ultrasonography and theloscopy for the diagnosis of obstructive fibrosis in the Fürstenberg venous ring in the four quarters of the udder of a cow: a case report

<div><p>ABSTRACT We report an unusual case of obstructive fibrosis of the venous ring of Fürstenberg in all four quarters of the udder of a cow of the Girolando breed (3/8 Gir and 5/8 Dutch). The information was obtained through a review of medical records, anamnesis, and imaging methods such as theloscopy and ultrasonography. Histopathological analysis provided a definitive diagnosis.</p></div>