Time-dependent changes in the stress-induced depression-like behaviors and memory impairment in rats.
(A) Swimming duration, (B) climbing duration, and (C) immobility duration in 1-, 4-, and 8-week stressed male rats, as determined by forced swimming test (FST). (D) Escape latency, (E) correct quadrant time, and (F) discrimination ratio in stressed rats, as determined by Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Numbers of animals are noted in parentheses. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 stress vs. control.